Python (PICMI)
WarpX uses the PICMI standard for its Python input files. Python version 3.7 or newer is required.
Example input files can be found in the examples section. In the input file, instances of classes are created defining the various aspects of the simulation. The Simulation object is the central object, where the instances are passed, defining the simulation time, field solver, registered species, etc.
Classes
Simulation and grid setup
Simulation
- class pywarpx.picmi.Simulation(solver=None, time_step_size=None, max_steps=None, max_time=None, verbose=None, particle_shape='linear', gamma_boost=None, cpu_split=None, load_balancing=None, **kw)[source]
Creates a Simulation object
- Parameters:
solver (field solver instance) – This is the field solver to be used in the simulation. It should be an instance of field solver classes.
time_step_size (float) – Absolute time step size of the simulation [s]. Needed if the CFL is not specified elsewhere.
max_steps (integer) – Maximum number of time steps. Specify either this, or max_time, or use the step function directly.
max_time (float) – Maximum physical time to run the simulation [s]. Specify either this, or max_steps, or use the step function directly.
verbose (integer, optional) – Verbosity flag. A larger integer results in more verbose output
particle_shape ({'NGP', 'linear', 'quadratic', 'cubic'}) – Default particle shape for species added to this simulation
gamma_boost (float, optional) – Lorentz factor of the boosted simulation frame. Note that all input values should be in the lab frame.
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_current_deposition_algo ({'direct', 'esirkepov', and 'vay'}, optional) – Current deposition algorithm. The default depends on conditions.
warpx_charge_deposition_algo ({'standard'}, optional) – Charge deposition algorithm.
warpx_field_gathering_algo ({'energy-conserving', 'momentum-conserving'}, optional) – Field gathering algorithm. The default depends on conditions.
warpx_particle_pusher_algo ({'boris', 'vay', 'higuera'}, default='boris') – Particle pushing algorithm.
warpx_use_filter (bool, optional) – Whether to use filtering. The default depends on the conditions.
warpx_do_multi_J (bool, default=0) – Whether to use the multi-J algorithm, where current deposition and field update are performed multiple times within each time step.
warpx_do_multi_J_n_depositions (integer) – Number of sub-steps to use with the multi-J algorithm, when
warpx_do_multi_J=1
. Note that this input parameter is not optional and must always be set in all input files wherewarpx.do_multi_J=1
. No default value is provided automatically.warpx_grid_type ({'collocated', 'staggered', 'hybrid'}, default='staggered') – Whether to use a collocated grid (all fields defined at the cell nodes), a staggered grid (fields defined on a Yee grid), or a hybrid grid (fields and currents are interpolated back and forth between a staggered grid and a collocated grid, must be used with momentum-conserving field gathering algorithm).
warpx_do_current_centering (bool, optional) – If true, the current is deposited on a nodal grid and then centered to a staggered grid (Yee grid), using finite-order interpolation. Default: warpx.do_current_centering=0 with collocated or staggered grids, warpx.do_current_centering=1 with hybrid grids.
warpx_field_centering_nox/noy/noz (integer, optional) – The order of interpolation used with staggered or hybrid grids (
warpx_grid_type=staggered
orwarpx_grid_type=hybrid
) and momentum-conserving field gathering (warpx_field_gathering_algo=momentum-conserving
) to interpolate the electric and magnetic fields from the cell centers to the cell nodes, before gathering the fields from the cell nodes to the particle positions. Default:warpx_field_centering_no<x,y,z>=2
with staggered grids,warpx_field_centering_no<x,y,z>=8
with hybrid grids (typically necessary to ensure stability in boosted-frame simulations of relativistic plasmas and beams).warpx_current_centering_nox/noy/noz (integer, optional) – The order of interpolation used with hybrid grids (
warpx_grid_type=hybrid
) to interpolate the currents from the cell nodes to the cell centers whenwarpx_do_current_centering=1
, before pushing the Maxwell fields on staggered grids. Default:warpx_current_centering_no<x,y,z>=8
with hybrid grids (typically necessary to ensure stability in boosted-frame simulations of relativistic plasmas and beams).warpx_serialize_initial_conditions (bool, default=False) – Controls the random numbers used for initialization. This parameter should only be used for testing and continuous integration.
warpx_random_seed (string or int, optional) – (See documentation)
warpx_do_dynamic_scheduling (bool, default=True) – Whether to do dynamic scheduling with OpenMP
warpx_load_balance_intervals (string, default='0') – The intervals for doing load balancing
warpx_load_balance_efficiency_ratio_threshold (float, default=1.1) – (See documentation)
warpx_load_balance_with_sfc (bool, default=0) – (See documentation)
warpx_load_balance_knapsack_factor (float, default=1.24) – (See documentation)
warpx_load_balance_costs_update ({'heuristic' or 'timers' or 'gpuclock'}, optional) – (See documentation)
warpx_costs_heuristic_particles_wt (float, optional) – (See documentation)
warpx_costs_heuristic_cells_wt (float, optional) – (See documentation)
warpx_use_fdtd_nci_corr (bool, optional) – Whether to use the NCI correction when using the FDTD solver
warpx_amr_check_input (bool, optional) – Whether AMReX should perform checks on the input (primarily related to the max grid size and blocking factors)
warpx_amr_restart (string, optional) – The name of the restart to use
warpx_amrex_the_arena_is_managed (bool, optional) – Whether to use managed memory in the AMReX Arena
warpx_amrex_the_arena_init_size (long int, optional) – The amount of memory in bytes to allocate in the Arena.
warpx_zmax_plasma_to_compute_max_step (float, optional) – Sets the simulation run time based on the maximum z value
warpx_compute_max_step_from_btd (bool, default=0) – If specified, automatically calculates the number of iterations required in the boosted frame for all back-transformed diagnostics to be completed.
warpx_collisions (collision instance, optional) – The collision instance specifying the particle collisions
warpx_embedded_boundary (embedded boundary instance, optional) –
warpx_break_signals (list of strings) – Signals on which to break
warpx_checkpoint_signals (list of strings) – Signals on which to write out a checkpoint
- add_laser(laser, injection_method)
Add a laser pulses that to be injected in the simulation
- Parameters:
laser_profile (laser instance) – One of laser profile instances. Specifies the physical properties of the laser pulse (e.g. spatial and temporal profile, wavelength, amplitude, etc.).
injection_method (laser injection instance, optional) – Specifies how the laser is injected (numerically) into the simulation (e.g. through a laser antenna, or directly added to the mesh). This argument describes an algorithm, not a physical object. It is up to each code to define the default method of injection, if the user does not provide injection_method.
- add_species(species, layout, initialize_self_field=None)
Add species to be used in the simulation
- Parameters:
species (species instance) – An instance of one of the PICMI species objects. Defines species to be added from the physical point of view (e.g. charge, mass, initial distribution of particles).
layout (layout instance) – An instance of one of the PICMI particle layout objects. Defines how particles are added into the simulation, from the numerical point of view.
initialize_self_field (bool, optional) – Whether the initial space-charge fields of this species is calculated and added to the simulation
- step(nsteps=None, mpi_comm=None)[source]
Run the simulation for nsteps timesteps
- Parameters:
nsteps (integer, default=1) – The number of timesteps
- write_input_file(file_name='inputs')[source]
Write the parameters of the simulation, as defined in the PICMI input, into a code-specific input file.
This can be used for codes that are not Python-driven (e.g. compiled, pure C++ or Fortran codes) and expect a text input in a given format.
- Parameters:
file_name (string) – The path to the file that will be created
Constants
For convenience, the PICMI interface defines the following constants, which can be used directly inside any PICMI script. The values are in SI units.
picmi.constants.c
: The speed of light in vacuum.picmi.constants.ep0
: The vacuum permittivity \(\epsilon_0\)picmi.constants.mu0
: The vacuum permeability \(\mu_0\)picmi.constants.q_e
: The elementary charge (absolute value of the charge of an electron).picmi.constants.m_e
: The electron masspicmi.constants.m_p
: The proton mass
Field solvers define the updates of electric and magnetic fields.
ElectromagneticSolver
- class pywarpx.picmi.ElectromagneticSolver(grid, method=None, stencil_order=None, cfl=None, source_smoother=None, field_smoother=None, subcycling=None, galilean_velocity=None, divE_cleaning=None, divB_cleaning=None, pml_divE_cleaning=None, pml_divB_cleaning=None, **kw)[source]
Electromagnetic field solver
- Parameters:
grid (grid instance) – Grid object for the diagnostic
method ({'Yee', 'CKC', 'Lehe', 'PSTD', 'PSATD', 'GPSTD', 'DS', 'ECT'}) –
The advance method use to solve Maxwell’s equations. The default method is code dependent.
’Yee’: standard solver using the staggered Yee grid (https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.1966.1138693)
’CKC’: solver with the extended Cole-Karkkainen-Cowan stencil with better dispersion properties (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.041303)
’Lehe’: CKC-style solver with modified dispersion (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.021301)
’PSTD’: Spectral solver with finite difference in time domain, e.g., Q. H. Liu, Letters 15 (3) (1997) 158–165
’PSATD’: Spectral solver with analytic in time domain (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2013.03.010)
’DS’: Directional Splitting after Yasuhiko Sentoku (https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50162-y)
’ECT’: Enlarged Cell Technique solver, allowing internal conductors (https://doi.org/10.1109/APS.2005.1551259)
stencil_order (vector of integers) – Order of stencil for each axis (-1=infinite)
cfl (float, optional) – Fraction of the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criteria [1]
source_smoother (smoother instance, optional) – Smoother object to apply to the sources
field_smoother (smoother instance, optional) – Smoother object to apply to the fields
subcycling (integer, optional) – Level of subcycling for the GPSTD solver
galilean_velocity (vector of floats, optional) – Velocity of Galilean reference frame [m/s]
divE_cleaning (bool, optional) – Solver uses div(E) cleaning if True
divB_cleaning (bool, optional) – Solver uses div(B) cleaning if True
pml_divE_cleaning (bool, optional) – Solver uses div(E) cleaning in the PML if True
pml_divB_cleaning (bool, optional) – Solver uses div(B) cleaning in the PML if True
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_pml_ncell (integer, optional) – The depth of the PML, in number of cells
warpx_periodic_single_box_fft (bool, default=False) – Whether to do the spectral solver FFTs assuming a single simulation block
warpx_current_correction (bool, default=True) – Whether to do the current correction for the spectral solver. See documentation for exceptions to the default value.
warpx_psatd_update_with_rho (bool, optional) – Whether to update with the actual rho for the spectral solver
warpx_psatd_do_time_averaging (bool, optional) – Whether to do the time averaging for the spectral solver
warpx_psatd_J_in_time ({'constant', 'linear'}, default='constant') – This determines whether the current density is assumed to be constant or linear in time, within the time step over which the electromagnetic fields are evolved.
warpx_psatd_rho_in_time ({'linear'}, default='linear') – This determines whether the charge density is assumed to be linear in time, within the time step over which the electromagnetic fields are evolved.
warpx_do_pml_in_domain (bool, default=False) – Whether to do the PML boundaries within the domain (versus in the guard cells)
warpx_pml_has_particles (bool, default=False) – Whether to allow particles in the PML region
warpx_do_pml_j_damping (bool, default=False) – Whether to do damping of J in the PML
ElectrostaticSolver
- class pywarpx.picmi.ElectrostaticSolver(grid, method=None, required_precision=None, maximum_iterations=None, **kw)[source]
Electrostatic field solver
- Parameters:
grid (grid instance) – Grid object for the diagnostic
method (string) – One of ‘FFT’, or ‘Multigrid’
required_precision (float, optional) – Level of precision required for iterative solvers
maximum_iterations (integer, optional) – Maximum number of iterations for iterative solvers
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_relativistic (bool, default=False) – Whether to use the relativistic solver or lab frame solver
warpx_absolute_tolerance (float, default=0.) – Absolute tolerance on the lab fram solver
warpx_self_fields_verbosity (integer, default=2) – Level of verbosity for the lab frame solver
Cartesian3DGrid
- class pywarpx.picmi.Cartesian3DGrid(number_of_cells=None, lower_bound=None, upper_bound=None, lower_boundary_conditions=None, upper_boundary_conditions=None, nx=None, ny=None, nz=None, xmin=None, xmax=None, ymin=None, ymax=None, zmin=None, zmax=None, bc_xmin=None, bc_xmax=None, bc_ymin=None, bc_ymax=None, bc_zmin=None, bc_zmax=None, moving_window_velocity=None, refined_regions=[], lower_bound_particles=None, upper_bound_particles=None, xmin_particles=None, xmax_particles=None, ymin_particles=None, ymax_particles=None, zmin_particles=None, zmax_particles=None, lower_boundary_conditions_particles=None, upper_boundary_conditions_particles=None, bc_xmin_particles=None, bc_xmax_particles=None, bc_ymin_particles=None, bc_ymax_particles=None, bc_zmin_particles=None, bc_zmax_particles=None, guard_cells=None, pml_cells=None, **kw)[source]
Three dimensional Cartesian grid Parameters can be specified either as vectors or separately. (If both are specified, the vector is used.)
- Parameters:
number_of_cells (vector of integers) – Number of cells along each axis (number of nodes is number_of_cells+1)
lower_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the lower bound [m]
upper_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the upper bound [m]
lower_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at lower boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
upper_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at upper boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
nx (integer) – Number of cells along X (number of nodes=nx+1)
ny (integer) – Number of cells along Y (number of nodes=ny+1)
nz (integer) – Number of cells along Z (number of nodes=nz+1)
xmin (float) – Position of first node along X [m]
xmax (float) – Position of last node along X [m]
ymin (float) – Position of first node along Y [m]
ymax (float) – Position of last node along Y [m]
zmin (float) – Position of first node along Z [m]
zmax (float) – Position of last node along Z [m]
bc_xmin (string) – Boundary condition at min X: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_xmax (string) – Boundary condition at max X: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_ymin (string) – Boundary condition at min Y: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_ymax (string) – Boundary condition at max Y: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_zmin (string) – Boundary condition at min Z: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_zmax (string) – Boundary condition at max Z: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
moving_window_velocity (vector of floats, optional) – Moving frame velocity [m/s]
refined_regions (list of lists, optional) – List of refined regions, each element being a list of the format [level, lo, hi, refinement_factor], with level being the refinement level, with 1 being the first level of refinement, 2 being the second etc, lo and hi being vectors of length 3 specifying the extent of the region, and refinement_factor defaulting to [2,2,2] (relative to next lower level)
lower_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle lower bound [m]
upper_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle upper bound [m]
xmin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along X [m]
xmax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along X [m]
ymin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along Y [m]
ymax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along Y [m]
float (zmin_particles) – Position of min particle boundary along Z [m]
optional – Position of min particle boundary along Z [m]
zmax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along Z [m]
lower_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at lower boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
upper_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at upper boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
bc_xmin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min X for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_xmax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max X for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_ymin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min Y for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_ymax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max Y for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_zmin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min Z for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_zmax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max Z for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
guard_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of guard cells used along each direction
pml_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) cells along each direction
References
absorbing_silver_mueller: A local absorbing boundary condition that works best under normal incidence angle. Based on the Silver-Mueller Radiation Condition, e.g., in - A. K. Belhora and L. Pichon, “Maybe Efficient Absorbing Boundary Conditions for the Finite Element Solution of 3D Scattering Problems,” 1995,
B Engquist and A. Majdat, “Absorbing boundary conditions for numerical simulation of waves,” 1977, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.74.5.1765
R. Lehe, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in Particle-In-Cell codes,” 2016, US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) Summer Session, Self-Consistent Simulations of Beam and Plasma Systems https://people.nscl.msu.edu/~lund/uspas/scs_2016/lec_adv/A1b_EM_Waves.pdf
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_max_grid_size (integer, default=32) – Maximum block size in either direction
warpx_max_grid_size_x (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in x direction
warpx_max_grid_size_y (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in z direction
warpx_max_grid_size_z (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in z direction
warpx_blocking_factor (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size)
warpx_blocking_factor_x (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the x direction
warpx_blocking_factor_y (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the z direction
warpx_blocking_factor_z (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the z direction
warpx_potential_lo_x (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower x boundary
warpx_potential_hi_x (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper x boundary
warpx_potential_lo_y (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower z boundary
warpx_potential_hi_y (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper z boundary
warpx_potential_lo_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower z boundary
warpx_potential_hi_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper z boundary
Cartesian2DGrid
- class pywarpx.picmi.Cartesian2DGrid(number_of_cells=None, lower_bound=None, upper_bound=None, lower_boundary_conditions=None, upper_boundary_conditions=None, nx=None, ny=None, xmin=None, xmax=None, ymin=None, ymax=None, bc_xmin=None, bc_xmax=None, bc_ymin=None, bc_ymax=None, moving_window_velocity=None, refined_regions=[], lower_bound_particles=None, upper_bound_particles=None, xmin_particles=None, xmax_particles=None, ymin_particles=None, ymax_particles=None, lower_boundary_conditions_particles=None, upper_boundary_conditions_particles=None, bc_xmin_particles=None, bc_xmax_particles=None, bc_ymin_particles=None, bc_ymax_particles=None, guard_cells=None, pml_cells=None, **kw)[source]
Two dimensional Cartesian grid Parameters can be specified either as vectors or separately. (If both are specified, the vector is used.)
- Parameters:
number_of_cells (vector of integers) – Number of cells along each axis (number of nodes is number_of_cells+1)
lower_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the lower bound [m]
upper_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the upper bound [m]
lower_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at lower boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
upper_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at upper boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
nx (integer) – Number of cells along X (number of nodes=nx+1)
ny (integer) – Number of cells along Y (number of nodes=ny+1)
xmin (float) – Position of first node along X [m]
xmax (float) – Position of last node along X [m]
ymin (float) – Position of first node along Y [m]
ymax (float) – Position of last node along Y [m]
bc_xmin (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at min X: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_xmax (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at max X: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_ymin (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at min Y: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_ymax (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at max Y: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
moving_window_velocity (vector of floats, optional) – Moving frame velocity [m/s]
refined_regions (list of lists, optional) – List of refined regions, each element being a list of the format [level, lo, hi, refinement_factor], with level being the refinement level, with 1 being the first level of refinement, 2 being the second etc, lo and hi being vectors of length 2 specifying the extent of the region, and refinement_factor defaulting to [2,2] (relative to next lower level)
lower_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle lower bound [m]
upper_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle upper bound [m]
xmin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along X [m]
xmax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along X [m]
ymin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along Y [m]
ymax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along Y [m]
lower_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at lower boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
upper_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at upper boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
bc_xmin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min X for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_xmax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max X for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_ymin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min Y for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_ymax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max Y for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
guard_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of guard cells used along each direction
pml_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) cells along each direction
References
absorbing_silver_mueller: A local absorbing boundary condition that works best under normal incidence angle. Based on the Silver-Mueller Radiation Condition, e.g., in - A. K. Belhora and L. Pichon, “Maybe Efficient Absorbing Boundary Conditions for the Finite Element Solution of 3D Scattering Problems,” 1995,
B Engquist and A. Majdat, “Absorbing boundary conditions for numerical simulation of waves,” 1977, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.74.5.1765
R. Lehe, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in Particle-In-Cell codes,” 2016, US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) Summer Session, Self-Consistent Simulations of Beam and Plasma Systems https://people.nscl.msu.edu/~lund/uspas/scs_2016/lec_adv/A1b_EM_Waves.pdf
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_max_grid_size (integer, default=32) – Maximum block size in either direction
warpx_max_grid_size_x (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in x direction
warpx_max_grid_size_y (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in z direction
warpx_blocking_factor (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size)
warpx_blocking_factor_x (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the x direction
warpx_blocking_factor_y (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the z direction
warpx_potential_lo_x (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower x boundary
warpx_potential_hi_x (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper x boundary
warpx_potential_lo_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower z boundary
warpx_potential_hi_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper z boundary
Cartesian1DGrid
- class pywarpx.picmi.Cartesian1DGrid(number_of_cells=None, lower_bound=None, upper_bound=None, lower_boundary_conditions=None, upper_boundary_conditions=None, nx=None, xmin=None, xmax=None, bc_xmin=None, bc_xmax=None, moving_window_velocity=None, refined_regions=[], lower_bound_particles=None, upper_bound_particles=None, xmin_particles=None, xmax_particles=None, lower_boundary_conditions_particles=None, upper_boundary_conditions_particles=None, bc_xmin_particles=None, bc_xmax_particles=None, guard_cells=None, pml_cells=None, **kw)[source]
One-dimensional Cartesian grid Parameters can be specified either as vectors or separately. (If both are specified, the vector is used.)
- Parameters:
number_of_cells (vector of integers) – Number of cells along each axis (number of nodes is number_of_cells+1)
lower_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the lower bound [m]
upper_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the upper bound [m]
lower_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at lower boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
upper_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at upper boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
nx (integer) – Number of cells along X (number of nodes=nx+1)
xmin (float) – Position of first node along X [m]
xmax (float) – Position of last node along X [m]
bc_xmin (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at min X: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_xmax (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at max X: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
moving_window_velocity (vector of floats, optional) – Moving frame velocity [m/s]
refined_regions (list of lists, optional) – List of refined regions, each element being a list of the format [level, lo, hi, refinement_factor], with level being the refinement level, with 1 being the first level of refinement, 2 being the second etc, lo and hi being vectors of length 2 specifying the extent of the region, and refinement_factor defaulting to [2,2] (relative to next lower level)
lower_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle lower bound [m]
upper_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle upper bound [m]
xmin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along X [m]
xmax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along X [m]
lower_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at lower boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
upper_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at upper boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
bc_xmin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min X for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_xmax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max X for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
guard_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of guard cells used along each direction
pml_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) cells along each direction
References
absorbing_silver_mueller: A local absorbing boundary condition that works best under normal incidence angle. Based on the Silver-Mueller Radiation Condition, e.g., in - A. K. Belhora and L. Pichon, “Maybe Efficient Absorbing Boundary Conditions for the Finite Element Solution of 3D Scattering Problems,” 1995,
B Engquist and A. Majdat, “Absorbing boundary conditions for numerical simulation of waves,” 1977, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.74.5.1765
R. Lehe, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in Particle-In-Cell codes,” 2016, US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) Summer Session, Self-Consistent Simulations of Beam and Plasma Systems https://people.nscl.msu.edu/~lund/uspas/scs_2016/lec_adv/A1b_EM_Waves.pdf
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_max_grid_size (integer, default=32) – Maximum block size in either direction
warpx_max_grid_size_x (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in longitudinal direction
warpx_blocking_factor (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size)
warpx_blocking_factor_x (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the longitudinal direction
warpx_potential_lo_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower longitudinal boundary
warpx_potential_hi_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper longitudinal boundary
CylindricalGrid
- class pywarpx.picmi.CylindricalGrid(number_of_cells=None, lower_bound=None, upper_bound=None, lower_boundary_conditions=None, upper_boundary_conditions=None, nr=None, nz=None, n_azimuthal_modes=None, rmin=None, rmax=None, zmin=None, zmax=None, bc_rmin=None, bc_rmax=None, bc_zmin=None, bc_zmax=None, moving_window_velocity=None, refined_regions=[], lower_bound_particles=None, upper_bound_particles=None, rmin_particles=None, rmax_particles=None, zmin_particles=None, zmax_particles=None, lower_boundary_conditions_particles=None, upper_boundary_conditions_particles=None, bc_rmin_particles=None, bc_rmax_particles=None, bc_zmin_particles=None, bc_zmax_particles=None, guard_cells=None, pml_cells=None, **kw)[source]
Axisymmetric, cylindrical grid Parameters can be specified either as vectors or separately. (If both are specified, the vector is used.)
- Parameters:
number_of_cells (vector of integers) – Number of cells along each axis (number of nodes is number_of_cells+1)
lower_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the lower bound [m]
upper_bound (vector of floats) – Position of the node at the upper bound [m]
lower_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at lower boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
upper_boundary_conditions (vector of strings) – Conditions at upper boundaries, periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
nr (integer) – Number of cells along R (number of nodes=nr+1)
nz (integer) – Number of cells along Z (number of nodes=nz+1)
n_azimuthal_modes (integer) – Number of azimuthal modes
rmin (float) – Position of first node along R [m]
rmax (float) – Position of last node along R [m]
zmin (float) – Position of first node along Z [m]
zmax (float) – Position of last node along Z [m]
bc_rmin (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at min R: One of open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_rmax (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at max R: One of open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_zmin (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at min Z: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
bc_zmax (vector of strings) – Boundary condition at max Z: One of periodic, open, dirichlet, absorbing_silver_mueller, or neumann
moving_window_velocity (vector of floats, optional) – Moving frame velocity [m/s]
refined_regions (list of lists, optional) – List of refined regions, each element being a list of the format [level, lo, hi, refinement_factor], with level being the refinement level, with 1 being the first level of refinement, 2 being the second etc, lo and hi being vectors of length 2 specifying the extent of the region, and refinement_factor defaulting to [2,2] (relative to next lower level)
lower_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle lower bound [m]
upper_bound_particles (vector of floats, optional) – Position of particle upper bound [m]
rmin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along R [m]
rmax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along R [m]
zmin_particles (float, optional) – Position of min particle boundary along Z [m]
zmax_particles (float, optional) – Position of max particle boundary along Z [m]
lower_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at lower boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
upper_boundary_conditions_particles (vector of strings, optional) – Conditions at upper boundaries for particles, periodic, absorbing, reflect or thermal
bc_rmin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min R for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_rmax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max R for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_zmin_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at min Z for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
bc_zmax_particles (string, optional) – Boundary condition at max Z for particles: One of periodic, absorbing, reflect, thermal
guard_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of guard cells used along each direction
pml_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) cells along each direction
References
absorbing_silver_mueller: A local absorbing boundary condition that works best under normal incidence angle. Based on the Silver-Mueller Radiation Condition, e.g., in - A. K. Belhora and L. Pichon, “Maybe Efficient Absorbing Boundary Conditions for the Finite Element Solution of 3D Scattering Problems,” 1995,
B Engquist and A. Majdat, “Absorbing boundary conditions for numerical simulation of waves,” 1977, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.74.5.1765
R. Lehe, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in Particle-In-Cell codes,” 2016, US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) Summer Session, Self-Consistent Simulations of Beam and Plasma Systems https://people.nscl.msu.edu/~lund/uspas/scs_2016/lec_adv/A1b_EM_Waves.pdf
Implementation specific documentation
This assumes that WarpX was compiled with USE_RZ = TRUE
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_max_grid_size (integer, default=32) – Maximum block size in either direction
warpx_max_grid_size_x (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in radial direction
warpx_max_grid_size_y (integer, optional) – Maximum block size in longitudinal direction
warpx_blocking_factor (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size)
warpx_blocking_factor_x (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the radial direction
warpx_blocking_factor_y (integer, optional) – Blocking factor (which controls the block size) in the longitudinal direction
warpx_potential_lo_r (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower radial boundary
warpx_potential_hi_r (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper radial boundary
warpx_potential_lo_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the lower longitudinal boundary
warpx_potential_hi_z (float, default=0.) – Electrostatic potential on the upper longitudinal boundary
warpx_reflect_all_velocities (bool default=False) – Whether the sign of all of the particle velocities are changed upon reflection on a boundary, or only the velocity normal to the surface
EmbeddedBoundary
- class pywarpx.picmi.EmbeddedBoundary(implicit_function=None, stl_file=None, stl_scale=None, stl_center=None, stl_reverse_normal=False, potential=None, cover_multiple_cuts=None, **kw)[source]
Custom class to handle set up of embedded boundaries specific to WarpX. If embedded boundary initialization is added to picmistandard this can be changed to inherit that functionality. The geometry can be specified either as an implicit function or as an STL file (ASCII or binary). In the latter case the geometry specified in the STL file can be scaled, translated and inverted.
- Parameters:
implicit_function (string) – Analytic expression describing the embedded boundary
stl_file (string) – STL file path (string), file contains the embedded boundary geometry
stl_scale (float) – Factor by which the STL geometry is scaled
stl_center (vector of floats) – Vector by which the STL geometry is translated (in meters)
stl_reverse_normal (bool) – If True inverts the orientation of the STL geometry
potential (string, default=0.) – Analytic expression defining the potential. Can only be specified when the solver is electrostatic.
cover_multiple_cuts (bool, default=None) – Whether to cover cells with multiple cuts. (If False, this will raise an error if some cells have multiple cuts)
arguments. (Parameters used in the analytic expressions should be given as additional keyword) –
Applied fields
ConstantAppliedField
- class pywarpx.picmi.ConstantAppliedField(Ex=None, Ey=None, Ez=None, Bx=None, By=None, Bz=None, lower_bound=[None, None, None], upper_bound=[None, None, None], **kw)[source]
Describes a constant applied field
- Parameters:
Ex (float, default=0.) – Constant Ex field [V/m]
Ey (float, default=0.) – Constant Ey field [V/m]
Ez (float, default=0.) – Constant Ez field [V/m]
Bx (float, default=0.) – Constant Bx field [T]
By (float, default=0.) – Constant By field [T]
Bz (float, default=0.) – Constant Bz field [T]
lower_bound (vector, optional) – Lower bound of the region where the field is applied [m].
upper_bound (vector, optional) – Upper bound of the region where the field is applied [m]
AnalyticAppliedField
- class pywarpx.picmi.AnalyticAppliedField(Ex_expression=None, Ey_expression=None, Ez_expression=None, Bx_expression=None, By_expression=None, Bz_expression=None, lower_bound=[None, None, None], upper_bound=[None, None, None], **kw)[source]
Describes an analytic applied field
The expressions should be in terms of the position and time, written as ‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’, ‘t’. Parameters can be used in the expression with the values given as additional keyword arguments. Expressions should be relative to the lab frame.
- Parameters:
Ex_expression (string, optional) – Analytic expression describing Ex field [V/m]
Ey_expression (string, optional) – Analytic expression describing Ey field [V/m]
Ez_expression (string, optional) – Analytic expression describing Ez field [V/m]
Bx_expression (string, optional) – Analytic expression describing Bx field [T]
By_expression (string, optional) – Analytic expression describing By field [T]
Bz_expression (string, optional) – Analytic expression describing Bz field [T]
lower_bound (vector, optional) – Lower bound of the region where the field is applied [m].
upper_bound (vector, optional) – Upper bound of the region where the field is applied [m]
PlasmaLens
- class pywarpx.picmi.PlasmaLens(period, starts, lengths, strengths_E=None, strengths_B=None, **kw)[source]
Custom class to setup a plasma lens lattice. The applied fields are dependent only on the transverse position.
- Parameters:
period (float) – Periodicity of the lattice (in lab frame, in meters)
starts (list of floats) – The start of each lens relative to the periodic repeat
lengths (list of floats) – The length of each lens
strengths_E=None (list of floats, default = 0.) – The electric field strength of each lens
strengths_B=None (list of floats, default = 0.) – The magnetic field strength of each lens
The field that is applied depends on the transverse position of the particle, (x,y)
Ex = x*stengths_E
Ey = y*stengths_E
Bx = +y*stengths_B
By = -x*stengths_B
Mirror
- class pywarpx.picmi.Mirror(x_front_location=None, y_front_location=None, z_front_location=None, depth=None, number_of_cells=None, **kw)[source]
Describes a perfectly reflecting mirror, where the E and B fields are zeroed out in a plane of finite thickness.
- Parameters:
x_front_location (float, optional (see comment below)) – Location in x of the front of the nirror [m]
y_front_location (float, optional (see comment below)) – Location in y of the front of the nirror [m]
z_front_location (float, optional (see comment below)) – Location in z of the front of the nirror [m]
depth (float, optional (see comment below)) – Depth of the mirror [m]
number_of_cells (integer, optional (see comment below)) – Minimum numer of cells zeroed out
Only one of the [x,y,z]_front_location should be specified. The mirror will be set perpendicular to the respective direction and infinite in the others. The depth of the mirror will be the maximum of the specified depth and number_of_cells, or the code’s default value if neither are specified.
Diagnostics
ParticleDiagnostic
- class pywarpx.picmi.ParticleDiagnostic(period, species, data_list=None, write_dir=None, step_min=None, step_max=None, parallelio=None, name=None, **kw)[source]
Defines the particle diagnostics in the simulation frame
- Parameters:
period (integer) – Period of time steps that the diagnostic is performed
species (species instance or list of species instances) – Species to write out. Note that the name attribute must be defined for the species.
data_list (list of strings, optional) – The data to be written out. Possible values ‘position’, ‘momentum’, ‘weighting’. Defaults to the output list of the implementing code.
write_dir (string, optional) – Directory where data is to be written
step_min (integer, default=0) – Minimum step at which diagnostics could be written
step_max (integer, default=unbounded) – Maximum step at which diagnostics could be written
parallelio (bool, optional) – If set to True, particle diagnostics are dumped in parallel
name (string, optional) – Sets the base name for the diagnostic output files
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_format ({plotfile, checkpoint, openpmd, ascent, sensei}, optional) – Diagnostic file format
warpx_openpmd_backend ({bp, h5, json}, optional) – Openpmd backend file format
warpx_file_prefix (string, optional) – Prefix on the diagnostic file name
warpx_file_min_digits (integer, optional) – Minimum number of digits for the time step number in the file name
warpx_random_fraction (float, optional) – Random fraction of particles to include in the diagnostic
warpx_uniform_stride (integer, optional) – Stride to down select to the particles to include in the diagnostic
warpx_plot_filter_function (string, optional) – Analytic expression to down select the particles to in the diagnostic
FieldDiagnostic
- class pywarpx.picmi.FieldDiagnostic(grid, period, data_list=None, write_dir=None, step_min=None, step_max=None, number_of_cells=None, lower_bound=None, upper_bound=None, parallelio=None, name=None, **kw)[source]
Defines the electromagnetic field diagnostics in the simulation frame
- Parameters:
grid (grid instance) – Grid object for the diagnostic
period (integer) – Period of time steps that the diagnostic is performed
data_list (list of strings, optional) – List of quantities to write out. Possible values ‘rho’, ‘E’, ‘B’, ‘J’, ‘Ex’ etc. Defaults to the output list of the implementing code.
write_dir (string, optional) – Directory where data is to be written
step_min (integer, default=0) – Minimum step at which diagnostics could be written
step_max (integer, default=unbounded) – Maximum step at which diagnostics could be written
number_of_cells (vector of integers, optional) – Number of cells in each dimension. If not given, will be obtained from grid.
lower_bound (vector of floats, optional) – Lower corner of diagnostics box in each direction. If not given, will be obtained from grid.
upper_bound (vector of floats, optional) – Higher corner of diagnostics box in each direction. If not given, will be obtained from grid.
parallelio (bool, optional) – If set to True, field diagnostics are dumped in parallel
name (string, optional) – Sets the base name for the diagnostic output files
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_plot_raw_fields (bool, optional) – Flag whether to dump the raw fields
warpx_plot_raw_fields_guards (bool, optional) – Flag whether the raw fields should include the guard cells
warpx_write_species (bool, optional) – Flag whether to output particle data with the diagnostic
warpx_format ({plotfile, checkpoint, openpmd, ascent, sensei}, optional) – Diagnostic file format
warpx_openpmd_backend ({bp, h5, json}, optional) – Openpmd backend file format
warpx_file_prefix (string, optional) – Prefix on the diagnostic file name
warpx_file_min_digits (integer, optional) – Minimum number of digits for the time step number in the file name
warpx_dump_rz_modes (bool, optional) – Flag whether to dump the data for all RZ modes
ElectrostaticFieldDiagnostic
- pywarpx.picmi.ElectrostaticFieldDiagnostic
alias of
FieldDiagnostic
Lab-frame diagnostics diagnostics are used when running boosted-frame simulations.
LabFrameFieldDiagnostic
- class pywarpx.picmi.LabFrameFieldDiagnostic(grid, num_snapshots, dt_snapshots, data_list=None, z_subsampling=1, time_start=0.0, write_dir=None, parallelio=None, name=None, **kw)[source]
Defines the electromagnetic field diagnostics in the lab frame
- Parameters:
grid (grid instance) – Grid object for the diagnostic
num_snapshots (integer) – Number of lab frame snapshots to make
dt_snapshots (float) – Time between each snapshot in lab frame
data_list (list of strings, optional) – List of quantities to write out. Possible values ‘rho’, ‘E’, ‘B’, ‘J’, ‘Ex’ etc. Defaults to the output list of the implementing code.
z_subsampling (integer, default=1) – A factor which is applied on the resolution of the lab frame reconstruction
time_start (float, default=0) – Time for the first snapshot in lab frame
write_dir (string, optional) – Directory where data is to be written
parallelio (bool, optional) – If set to True, field diagnostics are dumped in parallel
name (string, optional) – Sets the base name for the diagnostic output files
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_format (string, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.format
warpx_openpmd_backend (string, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.openpmd_backend
warpx_file_prefix (string, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.file_prefix
warpx_file_min_digits (integer, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.file_min_digits
warpx_buffer_size (integer, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.buffer_size
warpx_lower_bound (vector of floats, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.lower_bound
warpx_upper_bound (vector of floats, optional) – Passed to <diagnostic name>.upper_bound
Checkpoint
- class pywarpx.picmi.Checkpoint(period=1, write_dir=None, name=None, **kw)[source]
Sets up checkpointing of the simulation, allowing for later restarts
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_file_prefix (string) – The prefix to the checkpoint directory names
warpx_file_min_digits (integer) – Minimum number of digits for the time step number in the checkpoint directory name.
Particles
Species objects are a collection of particles with similar properties. For instance, background plasma electrons, background plasma ions and an externally injected beam could each be their own particle species.
Species
- class pywarpx.picmi.Species(particle_type=None, name=None, charge_state=None, charge=None, mass=None, initial_distribution=None, particle_shape=None, density_scale=None, method=None, **kw)[source]
Sets up the species to be simulated. The species charge and mass can be specified by setting the particle type or by setting them directly. If the particle type is specified, the charge or mass can be set to override the value from the type.
- Parameters:
particle_type (string, optional) – A string specifying an elementary particle, atom, or other, as defined in the openPMD 2 species type extension, openPMD-standard/EXT_SpeciesType.md
name (string, optional) – Name of the species
method ({'Boris', 'Vay', 'Higuera-Cary', 'Li' , 'free-streaming', 'LLRK4'}) –
The particle advance method to use. Code-specific method can be specified using ‘other:<method>’. The default is code dependent.
’Boris’: Standard “leap-frog” Boris advance
’Vay’:
’Higuera-Cary’:
’Li’ :
’free-streaming’: Advance with no fields
’LLRK4’: Landau-Lifschitz radiation reaction formula with RK-4)
charge_state (float, optional) – Charge state of the species (applies only to atoms) [1]
charge (float, optional) – Particle charge, required when type is not specified, otherwise determined from type [C]
mass (float, optional) – Particle mass, required when type is not specified, otherwise determined from type [kg]
initial_distribution (distribution instance) – The initial distribution loaded at t=0. Must be one of the standard distributions implemented.
density_scale (float, optional) – A scale factor on the density given by the initial_distribution
particle_shape ({'NGP', 'linear', 'quadratic', 'cubic'}) – Particle shape used for deposition and gather. If not specified, the value from the Simulation object will be used. Other values maybe specified that are code dependent.
Implementation specific documentation
See Input Parameters for more information.
- Parameters:
warpx_boost_adjust_transverse_positions (bool, default=False) – Whether to adjust transverse positions when apply the boost to the simulation frame
warpx_self_fields_required_precision (float, default=1.e-11) – Relative precision on the electrostatic solver (when using the relativistic solver)
warpx_self_fields_absolute_tolerance (float, default=0.) – Absolute precision on the electrostatic solver (when using the relativistic solver)
warpx_self_fields_max_iters (integer, default=200) – Maximum number of iterations for the electrostatic solver for the species
warpx_self_fields_verbosity (integer, default=2) – Level of verbosity for the electrostatic solver
warpx_save_previous_position (bool, default=False) – Whether to save the old particle positions
warpx_do_not_deposit (bool, default=False) – Whether or not to deposit the charge and current density for for this species
warpx_do_not_push (bool, default=False) – Whether or not to push this species
warpx_do_not_gather (bool, default=False) – Whether or not to gahter the fields from grids for this species
warpx_random_theta (bool, default=True) – Whether or not to add random angle to the particles in theta when in RZ mode.
warpx_reflection_model_xlo (string, default='0.') – Expression (in terms of the velocity “v”) specifying the probability that the particle will reflect on the lower x boundary
warpx_reflection_model_xhi (string, default='0.') – Expression (in terms of the velocity “v”) specifying the probability that the particle will reflect on the upper x boundary
warpx_reflection_model_ylo (string, default='0.') – Expression (in terms of the velocity “v”) specifying the probability that the particle will reflect on the lower y boundary
warpx_reflection_model_yhi (string, default='0.') – Expression (in terms of the velocity “v”) specifying the probability that the particle will reflect on the upper y boundary
warpx_reflection_model_zlo (string, default='0.') – Expression (in terms of the velocity “v”) specifying the probability that the particle will reflect on the lower z boundary
warpx_reflection_model_zhi (string, default='0.') – Expression (in terms of the velocity “v”) specifying the probability that the particle will reflect on the upper z boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_xlo (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the lower x boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_xhi (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the upper x boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_ylo (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the lower y boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_yhi (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the upper y boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_zlo (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the lower z boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_zhi (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the upper z boundary
warpx_save_particles_at_eb (bool, default=False) – Whether to save particles lost at the embedded boundary
MultiSpecies
- class pywarpx.picmi.MultiSpecies(particle_types=None, names=None, charge_states=None, charges=None, masses=None, proportions=None, initial_distribution=None, particle_shape=None, **kw)[source]
INCOMPLETE: proportions argument is not implemented Multiple species that are initialized with the same distribution. Each parameter can be list, giving a value for each species, or a single value which is given to all species. The species charge and mass can be specified by setting the particle type or by setting them directly. If the particle type is specified, the charge or mass can be set to override the value from the type.
- Parameters:
particle_types (list of strings, optional) – A string specifying an elementary particle, atom, or other, as defined in the openPMD 2 species type extension, openPMD-standard/EXT_SpeciesType.md
names (list of strings, optional) – Names of the species
charge_states (list of floats, optional) – Charge states of the species (applies only to atoms)
charges (list of floats, optional) – Particle charges, required when type is not specified, otherwise determined from type [C]
masses (list of floats, optional) – Particle masses, required when type is not specified, otherwise determined from type [kg]
proportions (list of floats, optional) – Proportions of the initial distribution made up by each species
initial_distribution (distribution instance) – Initial particle distribution, applied to all species
particle_shape ({'NGP', 'linear', 'quadratic', 'cubic'}) – Particle shape used for deposition and gather. If not specified, the value from the Simulation object will be used. Other values maybe specified that are code dependent.
Particle distributions can be used for to initialize particles in a particle species.
GaussianBunchDistribution
- class pywarpx.picmi.GaussianBunchDistribution(n_physical_particles, rms_bunch_size, rms_velocity=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], centroid_position=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], centroid_velocity=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], velocity_divergence=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], **kw)[source]
Describes a Gaussian distribution of particles
- Parameters:
n_physical_particles (integer) – Number of physical particles in the bunch
rms_bunch_size (vector of length 3 of floats) – RMS bunch size at t=0 [m]
rms_velocity (vector of length 3 of floats, default=[0.,0.,0.]) – RMS velocity spread at t=0 [m/s]
centroid_position (vector of length 3 of floats, default=[0.,0.,0.]) – Position of the bunch centroid at t=0 [m]
centroid_velocity (vector of length 3 of floats, default=[0.,0.,0.]) – Velocity (gamma*V) of the bunch centroid at t=0 [m/s]
velocity_divergence (vector of length 3 of floats, default=[0.,0.,0.]) – Expansion rate of the bunch at t=0 [m/s/m]
UniformDistribution
- class pywarpx.picmi.UniformDistribution(density, lower_bound=[None, None, None], upper_bound=[None, None, None], rms_velocity=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], directed_velocity=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], fill_in=None, **kw)[source]
Describes a uniform density distribution of particles
- Parameters:
density (float) – Physical number density [m^-3]
lower_bound (vector of length 3 of floats, optional) – Lower bound of the distribution [m]
upper_bound (vector of length 3 of floats, optional) – Upper bound of the distribution [m]
rms_velocity (vector of length 3 of floats, default=[0.,0.,0.]) – Thermal velocity spread [m/s]
directed_velocity (vector of length 3 of floats, default=[0.,0.,0.]) – Directed, average, velocity [m/s]
fill_in (bool, optional) – Flags whether to fill in the empty spaced opened up when the grid moves
AnalyticDistribution
- class pywarpx.picmi.AnalyticDistribution(density_expression, momentum_expressions=[None, None, None], lower_bound=[None, None, None], upper_bound=[None, None, None], rms_velocity=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], directed_velocity=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0], fill_in=None, **kw)[source]
Describes a uniform density plasma
- Parameters:
density_expression (string) – Analytic expression describing physical number density (string) [m^-3]. Expression should be in terms of the position, written as ‘x’, ‘y’, and ‘z’. Parameters can be used in the expression with the values given as keyword arguments.
momentum_expressions (list of strings) – Analytic expressions describing the gamma*velocity for each axis [m/s]. Expressions should be in terms of the position, written as ‘x’, ‘y’, and ‘z’. Parameters can be used in the expression with the values given as keyword arguments. For any axis not supplied (set to None), directed_velocity will be used.
lower_bound (vector of length 3 of floats, optional) – Lower bound of the distribution [m]
upper_bound (vector of length 3 of floats, optional) – Upper bound of the distribution [m]
rms_velocity (vector of length 3 of floats, detault=[0.,0.,0.]) – Thermal velocity spread [m/s]
directed_velocity (vector of length 3 of floats, detault=[0.,0.,0.]) – Directed, average, velocity [m/s]
fill_in (bool, optional) – Flags whether to fill in the empty spaced opened up when the grid moves
This example will create a distribution where the density is n0 below rmax and zero elsewhere.:
.. code-block: python
- dist = AnalyticDistribution(density_expression=’((x**2+y**2)<rmax**2)*n0’,
rmax = 1., n0 = 1.e20, …)
ParticleListDistribution
- class pywarpx.picmi.ParticleListDistribution(x=0.0, y=0.0, z=0.0, ux=0.0, uy=0.0, uz=0.0, weight=0.0, **kw)[source]
Load particles at the specified positions and velocities
- Parameters:
x (float, default=0.) – List of x positions of the particles [m]
y (float, default=0.) – List of y positions of the particles [m]
z (float, default=0.) – List of z positions of the particles [m]
ux (float, default=0.) – List of ux positions of the particles (ux = gamma*vx) [m/s]
uy (float, default=0.) – List of uy positions of the particles (uy = gamma*vy) [m/s]
uz (float, default=0.) – List of uz positions of the particles (uz = gamma*vz) [m/s]
weight (float) – Particle weight or list of weights, number of real particles per simulation particle
Particle layouts determine how to microscopically place macro particles in a grid cell.
GriddedLayout
- class pywarpx.picmi.GriddedLayout(n_macroparticle_per_cell, grid=None, **kw)[source]
Specifies a gridded layout of particles
- Parameters:
n_macroparticle_per_cell (vector of integers) – Number of particles per cell along each axis
grid (grid instance, optional) – Grid object specifying the grid to follow. If not specified, the underlying grid of the code is used.
PseudoRandomLayout
- class pywarpx.picmi.PseudoRandomLayout(n_macroparticles=None, n_macroparticles_per_cell=None, seed=None, grid=None, **kw)[source]
Specifies a pseudo-random layout of the particles
- Parameters:
n_macroparticles (integer) – Total number of macroparticles to load. Either this argument or n_macroparticles_per_cell should be supplied.
n_macroparticles_per_cell (integer) – Number of macroparticles to load per cell. Either this argument or n_macroparticles should be supplied.
seed (integer, optional) – Pseudo-random number generator seed
grid (grid instance, optional) – Grid object specifying the grid to follow for n_macroparticles_per_cell. If not specified, the underlying grid of the code is used.
Other operations related to particles
CoulombCollisions
- class pywarpx.picmi.CoulombCollisions(name, species, CoulombLog=None, ndt=None, **kw)[source]
Custom class to handle setup of binary Coulmb collisions in WarpX. If collision initialization is added to picmistandard this can be changed to inherit that functionality.
- Parameters:
name (string) – Name of instance (used in the inputs file)
species (list of species instances) – The species involved in the collision. Must be of length 2.
CoulombLog (float, optional) – Value of the Coulomb log to use in the collision cross section. If not supplied, it is calculated from the local conditions.
ndt (integer, optional) – The collisions will be applied every “ndt” steps. Must be 1 or larger.
MCCCollisions
- class pywarpx.picmi.MCCCollisions(name, species, background_density, background_temperature, scattering_processes, background_mass=None, max_background_density=None, ndt=None, **kw)[source]
Custom class to handle setup of MCC collisions in WarpX. If collision initialization is added to picmistandard this can be changed to inherit that functionality.
- Parameters:
name (string) – Name of instance (used in the inputs file)
species (species instance) – The species involved in the collision
background_density (float or string) – The density of the background. An string expression as a function of (x, y, z, t) can be used.
background_temperature (float or string) – The temperature of the background. An string expression as a function of (x, y, z, t) can be used.
scattering_processes (dictionary) – The scattering process to use and any needed information
background_mass (float, optional) – The mass of the background particle. If not supplied, the default depends on the type of scattering process.
max_background_density (float) – The maximum background density. When the background_density is an expression, this must also be specified.
ndt (integer, optional) – The collisions will be applied every “ndt” steps. Must be 1 or larger.
FieldIonization
- class pywarpx.picmi.FieldIonization(model, ionized_species, product_species, **kw)[source]
Field ionization on an ion species
- Parameters:
model (string) – Ionization model, e.g. “ADK”
ionized_species (species instance) – Species that is ionized
product_species (species instance) – Species in which ionized electrons are stored.
Implementation specific documentation
WarpX only has ADK ionization model implemented.
Lasers
Laser profiles can be used to initialize laser pulses in the simulation.
GaussianLaser
- class pywarpx.picmi.GaussianLaser(wavelength, waist, duration, propagation_direction, polarization_direction, focal_position, centroid_position, a0=None, E0=None, phi0=None, zeta=None, beta=None, phi2=None, name=None, fill_in=True, **kw)[source]
Specifies a Gaussian laser distribution.
More precisely, the electric field near the focal plane is given by:
\[E(\boldsymbol{x},t) = a_0\times E_0\, \exp\left( -\frac{r^2}{w_0^2} - \frac{(z-z_0-ct)^2}{c^2\tau^2} \right) \cos[ k_0( z - z_0 - ct ) - \phi_{cep} ]\]where \(k_0 = 2\pi/\lambda_0\) is the wavevector and where \(E_0 = m_e c^2 k_0 / q_e\) is the field amplitude for \(a_0=1\).
Note
The additional terms that arise far from the focal plane (Gouy phase, wavefront curvature, …) are not included in the above formula for simplicity, but are of course taken into account by the code, when initializing the laser pulse away from the focal plane.
- Parameters:
wavelength (float) – Laser wavelength [m], defined as \(\lambda_0\) in the above formula
waist (float) – Waist of the Gaussian pulse at focus [m], defined as \(w_0\) in the above formula
duration (float) – Duration of the Gaussian pulse [s], defined as \(\tau\) in the above formula
propagation_direction (unit vector of length 3 of floats) – Direction of propagation [1]
polarization_direction (unit vector of length 3 of floats) – Direction of polarization [1]
focal_position (vector of length 3 of floats) – Position of the laser focus [m]
centroid_position (vector of length 3 of floats) – Position of the laser centroid at time 0 [m]
a0 (float) – Normalized vector potential at focus Specify either a0 or E0 (E0 takes precedence).
E0 (float) – Maximum amplitude of the laser field [V/m] Specify either a0 or E0 (E0 takes precedence).
phi0 (float) – Carrier envelope phase (CEP) [rad]
zeta (float) – Spatial chirp at focus (in the lab frame) [m.s]
beta (float) – Angular dispersion at focus (in the lab frame) [rad.s]
phi2 (float) – Temporal chirp at focus (in the lab frame) [s^2]
fill_in (bool, default=True) – Flags whether to fill in the empty spaced opened up when the grid moves
name (string, optional) – Optional name of the laser
AnalyticLaser
- class pywarpx.picmi.AnalyticLaser(field_expression, wavelength, propagation_direction, polarization_direction, amax=None, Emax=None, name=None, fill_in=True, **kw)[source]
Specifies a laser with an analytically described distribution
- Parameters:
name=None (string, optional) – Optional name of the laser
field_expression (string) – Analytic expression describing the electric field of the laser [V/m] Expression should be in terms of the position, ‘X’, ‘Y’, in the plane orthogonal to the propagation direction, and ‘t’ the time. The expression should describe the full field, including the oscillitory component. Parameters can be used in the expression with the values given as keyword arguments.
wavelength (float) – Laser wavelength. This should be built into the expression, but some codes require a specified value for numerical purposes.
propagation_direction (unit vector of length 3 of floats) – Direction of propagation [1]
polarization_direction (unit vector of length 3 of floats) – Direction of polarization [1]
amax (float, optional) – Maximum normalized vector potential. Specify either amax or Emax (Emax takes precedence). This should be built into the expression, but some codes require a specified value for numerical purposes.
Emax (float, optional) – Maximum amplitude of the laser field [V/m]. Specify either amax or Emax (Emax takes precedence). This should be built into the expression, but some codes require a specified value for numerical purposes.
fill_in (bool, default=True) – Flags whether to fill in the empty spaced opened up when the grid moves
Laser injectors control where to initialize laser pulses on the simulation grid.
LaserAntenna
- class pywarpx.picmi.LaserAntenna(position, normal_vector=None, **kw)[source]
Specifies the laser antenna injection method
- Parameters:
position (vector of strings) – Position of antenna launching the laser [m]
normal_vector (vector of strings, optional) – Vector normal to antenna plane, defaults to the laser direction of propagation [1]
Running
WarpX can be run in one of two modes. It can run as a preprocessor, using the Python input file to generate an input file to be used by the C++ version, or it can be run directly from Python. The examples support running in both modes by commenting and uncommenting the appropriate lines.
In either mode, if using a virtual environment, be sure to activate it before compiling and running WarpX.
Running WarpX directly from Python
For this, a full Python installation of WarpX is required, as described in the install documentation (developers).
In order to run a new simulation:
Create a new directory, where the simulation will be run.
Add a Python script in the directory.
The input file should have the line sim.step()
which runs the simulation.
Run the script with Python:
mpirun -np <n_ranks> python <python_script>
where <n_ranks>
is the number of MPI ranks used, and <python_script>
is the name of the script.
Extending a Simulation from Python
When running WarpX directly from Python it is possible to interact with the simulation
by installing CallbackFunctions
, which will execute a given Python function at a
specific location in the WarpX simulation loop.
- class pywarpx.callbacks.CallbackFunctions(name=None, lcallonce=0)[source]
Class to handle call back function lists.
Note that for functions passed in that are methods of a class instance, a full reference of the instance is saved. This extra reference means that the object will not actually be deleted if the user deletes the original reference. This is good since the user does not need to keep the reference to the object (for example it can be created using a local variable in a function). It may be bad if the user thinks an object was deleted, but it actually isn’t since it had (unkown to the user) installed a method in one of the call back lists.
Places in the WarpX loop where callbacks are available include:
afterinit
, beforecollisions
, aftercollisions
, beforeEsolve
, afterEsolve
,
beforeInitEsolve
, afterInitEsolve
, beforedeposition
, afterdeposition
,
beforestep
, afterstep
, afterdiagnostics
,``afterrestart`` and oncheckpointsignal
.
See the examples in Examples/Tests/ParticleDataPython for references on how to use
callbacks
.
There are several “hooks” available via the libwarpx
shared library to access and manipulate
simulation objects (particles, fields and memory buffers) as well as general properties
(such as processor number). These “hooks” are accessible through the Simulation.extension object.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.getNProcs()
Get the number of processors
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.getMyProc()
Get the number of the processor
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_nattr()
Get the number of extra particle attributes.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_nattr_species(species_name)
Get the number of real attributes for the given species.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – Name of the species
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.getistep(level=0)
Get the current time step number for the specified level
Parameter
- levelint
The refinement level to reference
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.gett_new(level=0)
Get the next time for the specified level.
- Parameters:
level (int) – The refinement level to reference
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.evolve(num_steps=-1)
Evolve the simulation for num_steps steps. If num_steps=-1, the simulation will be run until the end as specified in the inputs file.
- Parameters:
num_steps (int) – The number of steps to take
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.finalize(finalize_mpi=1)
Call finalize for WarpX and AMReX. Registered to run at program exit.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.getProbLo(direction)
Get the values of the lower domain boundary.
- Parameters:
direction (int) – Direction of interest
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.getProbHi(direction)
Get the values of the upper domain boundary.
- Parameters:
direction (int) – Direction of interest
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.getCellSize(direction, level=0)
Get the cell size in the given direction and on the given level.
- Parameters:
direction (int) – Direction of interest
level (int) – The refinement level to reference
Particles can be added to the simulation at specific positions and with specific attribute values:
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.add_particles(species_name, x=None, y=None, z=None, ux=None, uy=None, uz=None, w=None, unique_particles=True, **kwargs)
A function for adding particles to the WarpX simulation.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The type of species for which particles will be added
x (arrays or scalars) – The particle positions (default = 0.)
y (arrays or scalars) – The particle positions (default = 0.)
z (arrays or scalars) – The particle positions (default = 0.)
ux (arrays or scalars) – The particle momenta (default = 0.)
uy (arrays or scalars) – The particle momenta (default = 0.)
uz (arrays or scalars) – The particle momenta (default = 0.)
w (array or scalars) – Particle weights (default = 0.)
unique_particles (bool) – Whether the particles are unique or duplicated on several processes (default = True)
kwargs (dict) – Containing an entry for all the extra particle attribute arrays. If an attribute is not given it will be set to 0.
Properties of the particles already in the simulation can be obtained with various functions.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_count(species_name, local=False)
Get the number of particles of the specified species in the simulation.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name that the number will be returned for
local (bool) – If True the particle count on this processor will be returned. Default False.
- Returns:
An integer count of the number of particles
- Return type:
int
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_structs(species_name, level)
This returns a list of numpy arrays containing the particle struct data on each tile for this process. The particle data is represented as a structured numpy array and contains the particle ‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’, and ‘idcpu’.
The data for the numpy arrays are not copied, but share the underlying memory buffer with WarpX. The numpy arrays are fully writeable.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name that the data will be returned for
level (int) – The refinement level to reference
- Returns:
The requested particle struct data
- Return type:
List of numpy arrays
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_arrays(species_name, comp_name, level)
This returns a list of numpy arrays containing the particle array data on each tile for this process.
The data for the numpy arrays are not copied, but share the underlying memory buffer with WarpX. The numpy arrays are fully writeable.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name that the data will be returned for
comp_name (str) – The component of the array data that will be returned
level (int) – The refinement level to reference
- Returns:
The requested particle array data
- Return type:
List of numpy arrays
The get_particle_structs()
and get_particle_arrays()
functions are called
by several utility functions of the form get_particle_{comp_name}
where
comp_name
is one of x
, y
, z
, r
, theta
, id
, cpu
,
weight
, ux
, uy
or uz
.
The index of some specific component of the particle data can be obtained.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_comp_index(species_name, pid_name)
Get the component index for a given particle attribute. This is useful to get the corrent ordering of attributes when adding new particles using add_particles().
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The name of the species
pid_name (str) – Name of the component for which the index will be returned
- Returns:
Integer corresponding to the index of the requested attribute
- Return type:
int
New components can be added via Python.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.add_real_comp(species_name, pid_name, comm=True)
Add a real component to the particle data array.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name for which the new component will be added
pid_name (str) – Name that can be used to identify the new component
comm (bool) – Should the component be communicated
Various diagnostics are also accessible from Python. This includes getting the deposited or total charge density from a given species as well as accessing the scraped particle buffer. See the example in Examples/Tests/ParticleBoudaryScrape for a reference on how to interact with scraped particle data.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_species_charge_sum(species_name, local=False)
Returns the total charge in the simulation due to the given species.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name for which charge will be summed
local (bool) – If True return total charge per processor
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.depositChargeDensity(species_name, level, clear_rho=True, sync_rho=True)
Deposit the specified species’ charge density in rho_fp in order to access that data via pywarpx.fields.RhoFPWrapper().
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name that will be deposited.
level (int) – Which AMR level to retrieve scraped particle data from.
clear_rho (bool) – If True, zero out rho_fp before deposition.
sync_rho (bool) – If True, perform MPI exchange and properly set boundary cells for rho_fp.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_boundary_buffer_size(species_name, boundary, local=False)
This returns the number of particles that have been scraped so far in the simulation from the specified boundary and of the specified species.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – Return the number of scraped particles of this species
boundary (str) – The boundary from which to get the scraped particle data in the form x/y/z_hi/lo
local (bool) – Whether to only return the number of particles in the current processor’s buffer
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_boundary_buffer_structs(species_name, boundary, level)
This returns a list of numpy arrays containing the particle struct data for a species that has been scraped by a specific simulation boundary. The particle data is represented as a structured numpy array and contains the particle ‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’, and ‘idcpu’.
The data for the numpy arrays are not copied, but share the underlying memory buffer with WarpX. The numpy arrays are fully writeable.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name that the data will be returned for
boundary (str) – The boundary from which to get the scraped particle data in the form x/y/z_hi/lo or eb.
level (int) – Which AMR level to retrieve scraped particle data from.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.get_particle_boundary_buffer(species_name, boundary, comp_name, level)
This returns a list of numpy arrays containing the particle array data for a species that has been scraped by a specific simulation boundary.
The data for the numpy arrays are not copied, but share the underlying memory buffer with WarpX. The numpy arrays are fully writeable.
- Parameters:
species_name (str) – The species name that the data will be returned for.
boundary (str) – The boundary from which to get the scraped particle data in the form x/y/z_hi/lo or eb.
comp_name (str) – The component of the array data that will be returned. If “step_scraped” the special attribute holding the timestep at which a particle was scraped will be returned.
level (int) – Which AMR level to retrieve scraped particle data from.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.clearParticleBoundaryBuffer()
Clear the buffer that holds the particles lost at the boundaries.
The embedded boundary conditions can be modified when using the electrostatic solver.
- pywarpx.picmi.Simulation.extension.set_potential_EB(potential)
Set the expression string for the embedded boundary potential
- Parameters:
potential (str) – The expression string
Using Python input as a preprocessor
In this case, only the pure Python version needs to be installed, as described here.
In order to run a new simulation:
Create a new directory, where the simulation will be run.
Add a Python script in the directory.
The input file should have the line like sim.write_input_file(file_name = 'inputs_from_PICMI')
which runs the preprocessor, generating the AMReX inputs file.
Run the script with Python:
python <python_script>
where <python_script>
is the name of the script.
This creates the WarpX input file that you can run as normal with the WarpX executable.